In 1952, a major computing company took a decision to get out of the business of making mainframe computers. They believed that there was only a market for four mainframes in the whole world. That company was IBM. The following year they reversed their decision. In 1980, IBM decided that there was a market for 230,000 PCs, sо they set up a special team todevelop the first IBM PC. It went on sale in 1981 and set a worldwide standard for IBM-compatibility, which, over the next ten years, was only seriously challenged by one other company, Apple Computers. Since then, over seventy million PCs made by IBM and other manufactures have been sold. Over this period, PCs have become commodity items. Since IBM made the design non-proprietary, anyone can makethem. The history of the multi-billion dollar PC industry has been one of mistakes. Xerox Corporation funded the initial research on personal computers in their Palo Alto laboratory in California. However, the company failed to capitalize on this work, and the ideas that they put together went into the operating system developed for Apple's computers. This was a graphical interface: using a mouse,the user clicks on icons, which represent the function to be performed. The first IBM PC was developed using existing available electrical components. With IBM's badge on the box it became the standard machine for large corporations to purchase. When IBM were looking for an operating system, they went initially to Digital Research, who were market leaders in commanded and-based operating systems(these are operating systems in which the users type in commands to perform a function). When the collaboration between IBM and Digital Research failed, IBM turned to Bill Gates, then 25 years old, to write their operating system.
Bill Gates founded Microsoft on the basis of the development of MS/DOS, the initial operating system for the IBM PC. Digital Research have continued to developtheir operating system, DR/DOS, and it is considered by many people to be a better product than Microsoft's. However, without an endorsement from IBM, it has become a minor player in the market. Novell, the leaders in PC networking, now own Digital Research, so things may change. The original IBM PC had as minimum of 16K of memory, but this could be upgraded to 512K if necessary, and ran with aprocessor speed of 4.77MHz. Ten years later, in 1991, IBM were making PCs with 16Mb of memory, expandable to 64Mb, running with a processor speed of 33MHz. The cost of buying the hardware has come down as considerably as the machines have become commodity items. Large companies are considering running major applications on PCs, something so which, ten уears ago, no one would have believed possibleof a PC. In contrast, many computes in people's homes are just used to play computer games. The widespread availability of computers has in all probability changed the world forever. The microchip technology, which made the PC possible, has put chips not only into computers, but also into washing machines and cars. Some books may never be published in paper form, but may only be made available aspart of public databases. Networks of computers are already being used to make information available on a worldwide scale.
Commodity items – items that can be produced and traded freely non-proprietary – not belonging to any single company capitalize on – profit from, turn to one’s advantage
ИЗ ИСТОРИИ КОМПЬЮТЕРОВ
В 1952, главная вычислительная компанияпринимала решение, чтобы выйти из бизнеса создания мэйнфреймовых компьютеров. Они полагали, что было только рынок для четырех мэйнфреймов в целом мире. Той компанией была IBM. В следующем году они инвертировали свое решение. В 1980, IBM решила, что был рынок для 230 000 PC, sо они устанавливают специальную команду, чтобы разработать первый IBM PC. Это поступило в продажу в 1981 и установило глобальную...