Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarhan Uzlag ibn Al-Farabi, Al-Turki was born in Farabi on the Syr-Darya river at the confluence of the rivers Aris in 870 He comes from a noble family of Turkic warlord, as is clear from the term "Tarhan.
Syr-Darya River has played in the history of the region the same role as the Nile to Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates to Mesopotamia.Farab later became known as Otrar, ruins of which are located in Otrar district of South Kazakhstan region. On Otrar information is available in Chinese and Ptolemy. In IX-X centuries., Described by his contemporaries, it was a large center, important border and the hub of world trade caravan routes of the time, which contacted nomads and sedentary population. Widely known fact of destruction ofthe Mongols in 1218, went down in history as "Otrar catastrophe." Here, in February 1405 Timur died. But the map of cultural development Otrar noted as the birthplace of the whole galaxy of eminent scholars, poets, thinkers, among which stands out on the right of Abu Nasr al-Farabi as the magnitude of global importance.
The greatest historians of culture and science have noted the greatness anduniqueness of the shape Farabi. Astronomy, logic, music theory and mathematics, sociology and ethics, medicine, psychology, philosophy and law - this is the list of his interests. Apparently, even at a young age Farabi left his native city, and visited almost all the cities associated with Islam and the Arab Caliphate in Bukhara, Merv, Horrane, Alexandria, Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad. For manyyears he spent in Baghdad, yavivshimsya political and cultural center of the Arab caliphate. Here he is thoroughly improved his knowledge by studying the works of figures, "Bayt al-Hikma", translators of Greek authors, comes into contact with prominent scientists, and after a certain time is pre-eminent place among them because of the moral height and power of thought. It was here that he was giventhe title "Muallim Assa - The second teacher. The title of "second" implies a "first", by which Aristotle had in mind.
And indeed, many of them brings: the latitude and diversity of scientific interests, the desire to philosophically understand the existence and man's place in it, close to the "conventional wisdom", the practical wisdom of everyday people. Farabi made independent contributionsto the science of logic, which was first written by the great Greek predecessor. Originality and boldness of his philosophical outlook was a certain contradiction to public opinion, unable to complete the perception of Greek philosophy and science. A direct attack on some of the prejudices of the era led many people to suspect him of heresy and away from religion. In fact, he showed extraordinaryindependence in their thinking and stood up for their beliefs.
Envy and hostility forced him to leave Baghdad. Last years of his life he spent in Aleppo and Damascus, using the auspices of Sayf al-Hamdani, Pressure, but preferred to live away from the hustle and bustle of the palace, being content with a modest salary in four dirhams. In Damascus, at age 80, he died and was buried in theso-called Lesser gates.
Farabi was truly a man of the world level, he reaches out and synthesized in his work the most valuable achievements of Arabic, Persian, Greek, Indian, and his own Turkic culture. Echoes of the latter is especially clearly seen in his famous "Kitab al-music al-Kabir (" Great Book of Music "). But he was not just a scholar in the humanities, brought together different culturaltraditions, there lived a genius of science reformer who sought to systematize the knowledge of his time, as reflected in his treatise "Word on the classification of sciences." Farabi conceived as a reformist pedagogy seeks to make knowledge in people's thickness, combine education with the development of humanity in people.
Requirements for Farabi to someone who wants to understand the...