Biznesi

  • 15 дек. 2010 г.
  • 9467 Слова
Tema 6. saerTaSoriso biznesis finansuri garemo

1. saerTaSoriso savaluto sistema da misi evolucia

saerTaSoriso savaluto sistema (International monetary sistem) aris organizaciebis, wesebis, molaparikebebis da instrumentebis erToblioba, romelTa mizania qveynebs Soris savaluto urTierTobaTa uzrunvelyofa. igi rogorc sxvadasxva erovnuli valutebis gacvlis sistema aregulirebs imvaldebulebebisa da davalianebebis dafarvis wesebs, romelic warmoiSoba sagareo vaWrobisa da sxva saerTaSoriso finansuri operaciebis Sedegad.
saerTaSoriso savaluto sistemis arseboba ganpirobebulia imiT, rom qveyanaTa umravlesobaSi gamoiyeneba sakuTari erovnuli valuta, romlebic saerTaSoriso doneze araa konventirebadi da, Sesabamisad, maTi saSualebiT SeuZlebelia saerTaSoriso biznesis ganxorcieleba.ucxoeTis qveynebSi biznesis warmoebisaTvis saWiroa erovnuli valutis gacvla sxva qveynis valutaze. saerTaSoriso savaluto sistema mowodebulia daadginos wesi, romlis Tanaxmadac qveynebi Seafaseben erovnul valutas da gacvlian maT sxva qveynebis valutaze. amasTanave, saerTaSoriso savaluto sistema iTvaliswinebs TiToeul qveyanaSi saerTaSoriso fulad Semosulobebsa da gadasaxdelebs Soris warmoqmnilidisproporciebis dabalansebis meqanizms.
mewarmeebma, romlebic ewevian komerciul saqmianobas saerTaSoriso bazrebze unda uzrunvelyon saerTaSoriso savaluto sistemaSi saaRricxvo operaciebis sworad warmarTvis kontroli. saerTaSoriso operaciebis aRricxvis sistema sagadasaxdelo balansis formiT (balans of payments accounting system) warmoadgens, Tavis mxriv, yvela saerTaSoriso operaciebis aRricxvis sistemas,aseve Seicavs mniSvnelovan informacias qveynis ekonomikis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb da mosalodnel cvlilebebs mis safinanso-sabiujeto da fulad-sakredito politikaSi. sagadasaxdelo balansSi mocemuli statistikuri monacemebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas im problemebis warmoqmnis niSnebis gamosavlenad, romlebmac saboloo jamSi qveynis mTavroba SeiZleba miiyvanos savaWro SezRudvebis SemoRebamde, saprocentoganakveTebis amaRlebamde, inflaciis tempebis daCqarebamde, samomxmareblo moTxovnis saerTo donis Semcirebamde an ama Tu im qveyanaSi biznes-saqmianobis danaxarjebis donis cvlilebamde.
saerTaSoriso savaluto sistemis istoria: Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso savaluto sistema saTaves iRebs uZvelesi droidan, rodesac oqro da vercxli gamodiodnen sagadasaxado saSualebebis saxiT savaWro urTierTobebSi tomebs Soris,mogvianebiT ki qalaq-saxelmwifoebs Soris. magaliTad, vecxli gamoiyeneboda rogorc mimoqcevis saSualeba indoeTs, babilonsa da finikias Soris jer kidev Cv. w. aRr. VII saukuneSi. evropis teritoriaze erovnuli saxelmwifoebis warmoSoba XXI-XVII ss. da maTi ganviTareba Tanamedrove saxelmwifoTa donemde mimdinareobda maT erovnul monetebSi oqrosa da vercxlis SedarebiTi Semcvelobis safuZvelze.
oqrosstandarti. oqros monetebis gamoyenebam sagadasaxado saSualebebis formiT uZveles droSi gamoiwvia saerTaSoriso savaluto sistemis warmoqmna, romelic cnobilia `oqros standartis~ saxelwodebiT. oqros standaris (gold standart) Sesabamisad, qveynebi Tanxmdebian TavianTi qaRaldis fuli gayidon (gacvalon) oqroze nebismieri kerZo piris an kompaniis moTxovnis Sesabamisad. didibritaneTi iyo pirveli qveyana,romelmac 1821 wels SemoiRo oqros standarti. me-XIX saukunis ganmavlobaSi oqros standarti SemoiRes praqtikulad yvela msxvilma saxelmwifoebma, romlebic axorcielebdnen vaWrobas, marT Soris, ruseTma, avstria-ungreTma, safrangeTma, germaniam, amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma.
oqros standartis, rogorc msoflio savaluto sistemis funqcionireba emyareboda ramdenime princips, romelTa Soris umniSvnelovanesia:1. erovnuli valutis fiqsirebuli oqros Semcveloba. magaliTad, 1821 wlidan did britaneTSi funti-sterlingis wminda oqros Semcveloba 7,322385 grams Seadgenda. 1873 wlidan erTi germanuli markisa 0,385422 grams, ruseTSi 1897 wlidan maneTi gauTanabres 0,774234 gram oqros.
2. qaRaldis fulis Tavisufali gacvla oqroze. qveynebis centraluri bankebi valdebulni iyvnen yovelgvari SezRudvis...
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