Commonwealth

  • 29 марта 2011 г.
  • 9375 Слова
CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………………………………………3
1 What is the Commonwealth……………………………………………………5
1.1 General description of the Commonwealth…………………………………..5
1.2 History of the Commonwealth……………………………………………….6
1.3 Commonwealth membership…………………………………………………9
1.3.1 Membership criteria………………………………………………………...9
1.3.2 Current members…………………………………………………………..10
2 Structure of theCommonwealth……………………………………………….11
2.1 Head of the Commonwealth…………………………………………………11
2.2 Commonwealth Secretariat…………………………………………………..13
2.3 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM)……………….15
3 Commonwealth for society…………………………………………………….17
3.1 Commonwealth Foundation………………………………………………….18
3.2 Commonwealth Games………………………………………………………20
3.3 Commonwealth Day………………………………………………………… 21
3.4 Symbol of theCommonwealth……………………………………………….22
4 The role of the Commonwealth in the world…………………………………...23
4.1 The Commonwealth in the world affairs……………………………………..23
4.2 Great Britain’s role in the Commonwealth…………………………………..24
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..25
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………...26
Appendix A……………………………………………………………………… 27
Appendix B……………………………………………………………………… 28Appendix C……………………………………………………………………… 30
Appendix D……………………………………………………………………….31

INTRODUCTION

The English word, "Commonwealth", dates from the 15th century when it meant “public welfare”; later the term was used in political theory to refer to a nation, state or political unit, state founded on law by agreement of the people for the common good, a republic, a federated union ofconstituent states. For example, English Commonwealth under the Cromwells; another early example is Poland and Lithuania Commonwealth formed in 1569; now there is the Commonwealth of Independent States set up as an attempt to preserve some unity and co-operation among the former republics of the Soviet Union; the Australian Commonwealth and the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth ofNations is the voluntary association of states which gradually emerged during the first half of the 20th century to replace the British Empire, which was an extraordinary and huge organisation for one quarter of the human race lived within its borders and it covered about the same amount of the globe. But at the end of the 19th century as the British Empire began its process of decolonization andthe creation of independent states from former British colonies, there arose a need for an organization of countries formerly part of the Empire. So the Commonwealth, which may be recognized as the world’s oldest political association of sovereign states, was the alternative. Some early British supporters of the Commonwealth hoped for different results: that Britain would grow in political powerby influencing the members, regaining the global position it had lost, that economic ties would strengthen the British economy and that the Commonwealth would promote British interests in world affairs. In reality, the Commonwealth benefited all member countries. It is the Commonwealth of Nations, or British Commonwealth as it is often referred to, that is the subject of this research work.Our aim is to study the Commonwealth as an international organisation, to examine its historical development, structure, member states and the role of the organisation in the world.
We will try to look closely at a number of issues: what the Commonwealth is; when and why it was created; who is the head of the Commonwealth and what its structure and supreme bodies are; what countries aremembers of the organisation and whether it is possible for any country opt out of the organization; in what areas the Commonwealth countries cooperate; what public organisations exist within the Commonwealth; what Commonwealth Games are and how often they are held; what the fundamental principles and values of the organisation and its role in the world affairs are; what the contribution of...
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