The lexical level, like any other level of language stratification, is naturally represented by some characteristic constants and their peculiar features as well. The principal constants of this language level in the contrasted languages are the following:
1. Words, their semantic classes and word-forming means as well as theirstructural models and stylistic peculiarities of use.
2. The second object of contrasting alongside of separate words and their classes present the lexico-semantic groups (LSGs) of words which are pertained to the contrasted languages.
3. The third group of lexical units contrasted at this level are stable and idiomatic expressions which are also of universal nature, though they always have somenational peculiarities in every single langu
It must be emphasised that regular lexemes and lexical units, despite their seemingly chaotic mass of different words and stable expressions are, like units of other language levels, systemically arranged. The systemic organisation of lexicon is conditioned in all languages by lingual as well as by extralingual factors which are of universal nature.Among the extralingual factors, predetermining the systemic organisation of lexicon, the following should be pointed out as most important: a) the physical and mental factors; b) the environmental factors; c) the social (суспільні) factors.
A. It is only due to the physical needs of human beings, and to a great extent due to the needs of all living beings in general that all languages have a greatnumber of common notions of actions designated by such verbs as live, eat, drink, think, sleep, wake, walk, run, jump, love, merry, die, etc. And it is only due to the common mental activity of man that every single language of the world has the notions designated by such words as speak, think, ask, answer, decide, realise, imagine, understand and many others. Likewise only due to the uniquenatural environment of human beings all languages have acquired a large number of common notions designated by words which reflect the multitudes of objects and phenomena surrounding every human being on the globe such as the sun, the moon, the stars, the wind, the sky, thunder, lightning, rain, as well as various species of plants, trees, fruits, colours, and living beings like fish, insects, mice,cats, dogs, etc.
An equally important role in the formation of a mostly common lexicon in all languages is played by the social factor. The latter involves various social phenomena as well as relationships and activities of man. These come to being and become obvious already at the family level involving the relationships and having their expression in such words as mother, father, child, sister,brother, aunt, uncle, grandmother, grandfather, etc. All words and combinations of words designating the many notions, which appear due to the above-mentioned principles, constitute a large typologically common class of words referred to as universal lexicon. Here naturally belong many other groups of words as, for example, those expressing deictic notions (pronouns, adverbial and adverbiallyexpressed feelings, exclamations, specific national culturally biased notions).
Apart from this, all developed languages of the world have some other common layers of lexicon which came to being under the influence of different social, economic, historical and other extralingual factors. These layers form dialectal, professional, poetic, archaic, slang, international, specifically national, etc.lexicons. Each of them has its distinctive typologically characteristic features of isomorphic nature in common. Thus, the functioning of dialectal lexicons in any language is restricted to a definite historically destined territory (cf. the Scottish dialect, London cockney or the Western Ukrainian dialects, etc.).
Quite opposite by their nature, which is also a universal peculiarity property, are...