Linguistic

  • 27 янв. 2011 г.
  • 1083 Слова
All stylistic means of the English and Uzbek languages can be divided into expressive means (EM) and stylistic devices (SD). “The expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word building, lexical, preseological or syntactical forms which exist in language as-a-system for the purpose of logical and various dictionaries.
Among lexical EM we must mention words with emotivemeanings, interjections, polysemantic words, vulgar words, slang etc. The fact that polysemantic words retain their primary and secondary meanings is of great importance for stylistics. It is quite easy to understand the meaning of the following phrases; He grasped the main idea; a burning question; pity melted her heart. The italicized words are used in their secondary transferred dictionarymeanings. But the primary and secondary meanings are realized simultaneously. The expressiveness of these words becomes obvious when compared with neutral equivalents; He understood the main idea; an important question; pity softened her heart. This expressiveness exists in the vocabulary of the Uzbek and any language. For example: Suv yuz gradus issiqlikda qaynaydi; gap qaynaydi. Ustaraniqayramoq.Ikki yoshni bir-biriga qayramoq. Dalalarda ish qaynaydi kimlar teradi, kimlar beda o`radi, kimlar shudgar qiladi.
In this short survey it is impossible to give a complete analysis of all E.M. of the both language. My task was to show some lexical EM of the English and Uzbek languages.
According to Prof I.R. Galperin`s definition Stylistic Devise is a conscious and intentional intensification ofsome type structural or semantic property of a language unit promoted to a generalized status and thus becoming a generative model.
SD must always have some function in the text, besides they bring some additional information. The conception that words possess several meanings gives rise to such SDS as metaphor, metonymy, irony, epithet and others. Thus, a metaphor is a conscious and intentionalintensification of typical semantic properties of a word: “Oh, Rain”-said Mor. He enveloped her in a great embrace. (I. Murdoch). The dictionary meaning of the verb “envelope” is “to wrap up, coer on all sides”. The contextual meaning is “to embrace” Here we can give example of the Uzbek: Imtixonda u sayrab ketdi. The dictionary meaning of the verb “sayramoq” is “qushlarning sayrashi, yoqimli yokiyoqimsiz ovoz chiqarishi” The contextual meaning is” tinmasdan so`zladi, yaxshi javob berdi”.
The typical features of proverbs and sayings serve as the foundation for an SD which is called epigram, i.e. brevity, rhythm and other properties of proverbs constitute a generative mo0del into which new content is poured
A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. (J. Keats)
Sweet is pleasure after pain(J. Dryden)
If youth knew, if age could (Tl. Estienne)
What the eye does not see, the stomach doesn't get upset (J.K. Jerome).
O`zing tashna bo`lsang, obi juy etar
Ko`zing tashna bo`lsa, obro`y ketar (X.Dexlaviy)
Aytur so`zni ayt, aytmas so`zdan qayt. (A.Navoiy)
These phrases are not proverbs; they are the creations of individual writers and poets. When such phrases are used in the textthey accumulate great emotive force and function. They acquire a generalized status and thus easily become an SD while proverbs remain EM of the language.
The some may be said about syntax. The typical structural features of oral speech (violation of word order, omission of some parts of the sentence, repetition of certain words etc) may be intensified and promoted to a generalized status. Such SDsas inversion, parallel constructions, chiasmus is the result of these stylistic transformations.
It is important to know that the stylistic use of EM must not necessarily lead to the formation of an SD. For example, repetition is widely used in folk song and poetry and in oral speech to make our speech emotional and expressive, but we can't say that in such cases we use a SD.
When the...
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