The modern world undergoes dramatic changes and human society evolves rapidly to the extent that traditional values seem to be dissolved in the ocean of new ideologies and movements. However, regardless all the changes, religion is still important and produce a profound impact on the life of society and even defines the current political situation in many states and affectsinternational relations dramatically. It is an undeniable fact that religion inevitable affects the world change since it is able to profoundly impact individuals and evoke their activism. At the same time, nowadays it is also obvious that such activism can be both violent and peaceful. As a result, religion has a great power to define the behavior of individuals by means of ideological influence andoften this may lead to very negative consequences. In this respect, it should be said that one of the most negative consequences of the negative impact of religious teaching used by some individuals and organization is the spread of religious terrorism. In actuality, this notion is not new but it is still merely researched since, traditionally, there was no distinctive categories of terrorism andterrorism was viewed as such regardless whether it was religious, political, or anything else. That is why nowadays it is particularly important to research the problem of religious terrorism, to find out its historical roots, causes in order to understand its essence and find possibly more effective solutions because at the present days religious terrorism is growing in power and becomes one ofthe main branches of international terrorism, especially in the context of the opposition between rich, mainly civic countries, and poor ones, where religion traditionally plays an extremely important role.
1_History of religious terrorism
The History of Terrorism
1st Century BCE-13th Century: Terrorism in the Pre-Modern World:
The history of terrorism isas old as humans' willingness to use violence to affect politics. The Sicarii were a first century Jewish group who murdered enemies and collaborators in their campaign to oust their Roman rulers from Judea.
The Hashhashin, whose name gave us the English word "assassins," were a secretive Islamic sect active in Iran and Syria from the 11th to the 13th century.
Their dramatically executedassassinations of Abbasid and Seljuk political figures terrified their contemporaries.
Zealots and assassins were not, however, really terrorists in the modern sense. Terrorism is best thought of as a modern phenomenon. Its characteristics flow from the international system of nation-states, and its success depends on the existence of a mass media to create an aura of terror among many people.1793: The Origins of Modern Terrorism:
The word terrorism comes from the Reign of Terror instigated by Maxmilien Robespierre in 1793, following the French revolution. Robespierre, one of twelve heads of the new state, had enemies of the revolution killed, and installed a dictatorship to stabilize the country. He justified his methods as necessary in the transformation of the monarchy to aliberal democracy:
Subdue by terror the enemies of liberty, and you will be right, as founders of the Republic.
Robespierre's sentiment laid the foundations for modern terrorists, who believe violence will usher in a better system. For example, the 19th century Narodnaya Volya hoped to end Tsarist rule in Russia.
But the characterization of terrorism as a state action faded, while the idea ofterrorism as an attack against an existing political order became more prominent.
Learn more about whether states should be considered terrorists.
1950s: The Rise of Non-State Terrorism:
The rise of guerrilla tactics by non-state actors in the last half of the twentieth century was due to several factors. These included the flowering of ethnic nationalism (e.g. Irish, Basque, Zionist),...